>>>>Consciousness may just involve particles that we cannot detect.
The fact that you need to hypotesize the existence of some "undetectable" element in us to justify the existence of our consciousness, proves that a soul must exist. You simply do not want to use the word "soul", but the point is that consciousness cannot be generated by any biological/cerebral processes; hence a soul must exist.
>>>Besides that, the existence of souls does not mean that a god exists.
We can define God as the necessary Cause of the existence of our soul; we can then deuce some attributes of God
1) First of all, the fact that God has the capacity to create our psyche, while we, not only are unable to create any psyche, but we need be created in order to become to exist as conscious persons, proves that God is infinitely superior to us; there is an abyss of superiority, separating God from us, which is equivalent to say that God is transcendent to man.
2) Since God is the Creator of us, He must have existed before us and He must exist independently from us; His existence does not depend on us, while our existence depends on Him.
3) Since God has the capacity to create our intelligence, our consciousness and our will, He must be intelligent, conscious and He must have a will. In fact, since God is superior to us and He is the Creator of our own capacities, He must have at least our own capacities. Besides, since God is the Creator of our own mind, He must know us perfectly.
4) Since God is superior to us, He must have a superior capacity to love.
These considerations prove that the necessary Cause of the existence of our soul is necessarily a personal, conscious and intelligent God.
An independent argument to prove directly the existence of God is the following.
Science has proved that the state of the universe is determined by some specific mathematical principles and equations, the laws of physics. However we know that mathematics cannot exist by itself, but it exists only as a thought in a conscious and intelligent mind. In fact, a mathematical equation is only an abstract concept, which existence presupposes the existence of a person who conceives such a concept. Therefore, the existence of this mathematically structured universe does imply the existence of a personal God; this universe can exist only if there exists a conscious and intelligent God conceiving it . Some people object that the mathematical equations are not the principles ruling the universe, but they are only a representation imagined by man. This argument however does not stand, as we can easily understand with the following consideration: if the universe did not have an intrinsic mathematical structure, one couldn't explain how it is possible to described so precisely all mechanical, electrical, magnetic, chemical and biological phenomena only by the same system of mathematical equations. Since one century, we observe a systematic confirmations of the laws of physics, in our numberless studies on newer and newer systems and materials. Consider that it is possible to invent infinite different mathematical equations, which wouldn't be able to describe the processes we observe in nature. It is not possible to justify the extraordinary agreement between the experimental data and the laws of physics without admitting that the state of the universe (what the phylosopher Kant called "noumenal" or "thing-in-themselves" reality) must necessarily be determined by some specific mathematical laws. It is not possible to justify the existence of these mathematical laws without admitting the existence of a personal, conscious and intelligent Creator. Atheism is incompatible with the view of the universe, presented by modern science.