"I've read this argument many times but I think it's not only flawed, it's naive. If we detect mathematical patterns when we observe the universe, it's absolutely impossible to know if those mathematical patterns really exist in the universe or if they exist only in our perception. That is, if our thinking is ruled by math and logic at some fundamental level, it would be impossible for us not to perceive the world as being also ruled by math and logic. "
Simply false. First of all, we do not perceive the universe directly through mathematical patterns, since many millenia have been necessary to discover the laws of physics. Besides, we may conceive infinit different mathematical equations, but ONLY the equations of physics allow to predict correctly the natural phenomena. Should we hypothesize that our thinking is ruled by such specific equations? Why these equations and not any other equations? If our mind were ruled by these specific equations, why so many millennia were necessary to discover them?
But there is another flaw in your argument; Even if our mind were ruled by these specific equations, if the universe was not ruled by the same equations, we were totally unable to precit correctly the natural Phenomena; we would simply be totally unable to predict any natural phenomena. The predictive capacity of the laws of physics proves that the state of the universe is REALLY determined by some specific mathemaical equations.
Think about it,