In QED mathematics of chaotic virtual pair creation results mathematically what we calle inverse square Coulomb law (math results in inverse square in 3-D space only, and in different laws in lower or higher number of dimensions). It may sound strange, but this chaotic pairs foaming out of nothing results mathematically in extremely well defined interaction by those virtual pairs (virtual photons in QED). For example, if you calculate the energy of interaction between a proton and an electron, for example, it will coincide with the actual measured energy of levels of hydrogen atom (accounting in the calculations for special relativity, of course) to better than ONE PART PER TRILLION (10^-12) !!!.
This means that mathematical equations of QED originating from virtual chaos, describe what is going on between proton, electron and other charged particles "in reality" with UNBELIVABLE ACCURACY.
There was even built so called hydrogen atomic clock which make use of these equations to predict time with EXTREME ACCURACY and stability. Due to such accuracy you can easily measure and verify many fine effects of relativity, general relativity, small high-order Taylor terms in behavior and interaction of quantum systems, monitor slow tectonic motion, discover fine starquakes, slowing down neutron stars due to a GR predicted space drag, etc etc.
For example, hydrogen clock in Washington DC runs slower than similar clock in Denver CO due to stronger gravity (lower elevation in Washington DC versus Denver CO), also clock onboard satellite runs faster due to lower gravity but slower due to relativistic time dilation due to fast motion. Attaching clocks to a telescope and sending short laser pulse to Moon you can clock the return time of reflected signal with high accuracy finding that a year later it is about 0.1 nanosecond longer. This mean that the moon is receeding from Earth about an inch and a falf per year. This is due to tidal gravitational coupling with rotating Earth and because the total angular momentum of Earth+Moon should conserve, the Earth thus has to slow its rotation down due to accelerating Moon. Indeed, atomic clocks had verified that each our day is longer than previous for about 40 nanoseconds.
Recording radio signals using radio telescopes 5000 miles away along with atomic clock signals, scientists may then artificially mix the two recordings to make them interfere with each other in the computer - and they restore very fine image of quasars and colliding galaxies - thousand times better than Hubble due to much larger base. Interesting, that to get interference in that far separated telescopes, a photon received by both telescopes should be much larger than the 5000 miles distance between the scopes - and indeed it is, otherwise there would be no interference when you mix two signals recorded that far from each other. |