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Posted by Richard Ruquist on October 1, 2002 12:48:27 UTC

***And out of this great multitude of mutations, how many are benificial? Any? You make it sound like mutations are commonplace, and beneficial. They are neither.***

Mutations are commonplace. And most of them are neutral or damaging. But on the whole they contribute to the breadth of the gene pool of any species so that when the conditions of survival change, there already exists a set of genes that can flourish in the new environment. A set of genes in the pool then become positive and we can say that the mutations that formed them are positive.

The human Y chromosome is an example of what happens when the gene pool is restricted. It seems that a particular tribe with one kind of Y chromosome essentially conquered the world of humans millions of years ago so that now we have a gene pool of one type. In about 5 million years, just because of damaging mutations, this Y chromosome will become useless and the males of our species will die out.

So we had better hope for a positive mutation to create a renewed Y chromosome that will have another 100 million years of existence.

So this raises the question that if god created everything 6,000 tears ago, then why did most species get a gene pool but not humans.

Next question. Since it is only males that have the restricted pool of Y chromosomes, and supposedly females were originally made from males, how did the females escape the restricted gene pool. It rather seems that females were created first, but the chauvinistic Rabis could not admit that.

It seems much more likely that in primative species there was no sexual reproduction. Then came species where the same individual in the species could be eother male or female. Some such species still exist. Later on, the ability to switch was lost, but a gene pool of Y chromosomes existed so that cross fertilization could renew the Y chromosome. But finally in the human species a particular Y chromosome, the Adam chromosome, out survived all other forms of humans. And so today we humans are faced with the prospect of extinction. Hardly the image of an everlasting God.

The creation of the Y chromosome would seem to be damaging at first thought, since it is essentially an X chromosome that lost a big bunch of genes via a damaging mutation. Clearly it was a damaging mutation. But at the same time it was positive, at least for 100 million years or so. So you cannot say that all damaging mutations, as they all are, are negative.

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