I'm quite happy that we seem to be making progress. There are only a couple of things I need to clarify.
>> 1. What is knowledge of something reduced to (in terms of basic principles): 'Do you really think human knowledge is so sophisticated that it can't be reduced to a few basic elements?' > 2. How did knowledge of something come to exist out of nothing: 'Obviously you didn't start from nothing, completely tabula rasa, but at some point in history some creature had nothing to start with and they did it...How do you find knowledge if you don't have knowledge to start with? Don't answer that you can't because you can, it's been done.' > 3. How is knowledge validated as correct: 'My point was that we can't honestly say that our knowledge is correct because it validates itself and still keep a straight face' > A. You are not needing an ontological foundation to knowledge: 'I'm not searching for ontological foundations for knowledge' > B. Nor needing to justify our knowledge usage: 'I'm not concerned about justifying knowledge' > C. Nor needing a biological foundation of knowledge: 'H: Proteins, enzymes, nerves, genes, endorphins, brains, ideas, axioms, theorems, etc. A: What a trip! What are computers made of? Word processors, spreadsheets, web browsers, operating systems... ' > Based on the above, I see the issues you are inquiring about are a little different than Dick's issues. > In any case, I just wanted to clarify that we are talking about different epistemological issues. Just asking epistemological questions doesn't mean that all of the questions are about the same topic. > So, the main issue for you seems to be the analogy with the computer. > The computer is founded upon one's and zero's and that the 'knowledge' or data contents of a computer are based on boolean values. > What you want to know is what is the corresponding principle of knowledge for sentient creatures (question 1). In addition, you want to know how those bits of knowledge in sentient lifeforms come from nothing (question 2). > And, finally, how do animals and humans experience an understanding based the repertoire of all previous knowledge (question 4)? > If this is a summary of your questions, then I can move in this direction for my response. If you need to restate some issues, please let me know.