Why Does Time Fly?
Today many scientists believe in the Big Bang and time travel because nobody wants to question the primary assumptions, i.e. it is much easier to repair the old models using new parameters, dimensions, strings and iron wire. However, if the primary assumptions are wrong then it is very difficult to find the correct answers to many basic questions, for example:
1. Why is the speed of light relatively constant?
2. Why do chemists talk about the rate and speed of processes but physicists talk about time dilatation and time travel?
3. Why is the difference between experimental observations and a theoretical model normally referred to as an "error" but in cosmology, it is called "dark energy”?
4. Why do we assume that gravity is an inter-material pulling force?
We think that gravity pulls a pencil down to the floor if we drop it. However, we may find new routes and explanations if we have the courage to assume that gravity pushes the pencil down to the floor. This simple reassessment will lead to very different and exciting conclusions compared to the traditional way of thinking; but of course, the ultimate truth will be found by comparing and testing different assumptions with experimental observations. Science is based on good assumptions, experimental observations and wise conclusions.
What is time made of?
Time may be regarded either as a simple phenomenon or as a great mystery, depending on our point of view. It is easy to understand what the other physical or chemical base units represent, however, we may ask what does time measure and what is time made of?
We can measure length using the metric gauge and time using the clock. However, the clock measures the oscillation speed of quartz crystal, the sundial measures the rotation speed of the earth and the calendar measures the orbital speed of the earth around the sun.
Time exists because the world is changing all the time. Time stops when all motion stops. However, without motion our world would die because the orbital motion of the celestial spheres and the atomic particles prevents the collapse of our world, i.e. time is made from the motion of our universe. Time is a relative phenomenon, because the speed of motion depends on the comparison point and because the speed of all processes depends on the local prevailing conditions.
In this respect time is not a base unit but a derived unit, which is created from motion and speed. Time is a very practical and handy tool, which makes it possible to arrange and organize events and activities in a reasonable order. However, time is not the fourth dimension, where we can freely move as we can in the other three dimensions. The other base units are also based on motion: electric current is the motion of electrons, light intensity is the motion of photons, temperature is the oscillation of atoms and mass is the inertia of material when it is moved. Length gives the distance of the motion and the amount of material gives the number of moving particles.
The time machine has already been invented, however, it only works forwards. Nearly all of us have such an appliance in our home. We can easily test it by leaving a tomato for two weeks on the table and the other one in the fridge. Time passes more slowly in the fridge because the tomato that was in the fridge seems to be younger than the one on the table, because the low temperature slows down the chemical reactions.
A similar ILLUSION may be created using two accurate clocks. One clock is placed on a plane and the other one on the ground. When the plane comes back, the clock on the plane seems to have lost some time. The substantial movement of the plane in the gravitational field slows down physical processes. This phenomenon is based on process and reaction kinetics and not on a variation in time.
All internal motion and “time” stops at the speed of light. Light proceeds using a waveform in the pervasive gravitational energy field at a relatively constant speed, like sound in the air. A homogenous energy field must exist because the speed of light does not depend on the light source speed, neither does it depend on the energy level of the radiation. The old “ether” ocean cannot exist because a material medium would gradually slow down the speed of the photons, electrons and celestial spheres and such an effect has not been observed. However, even the emptiest cubic meter in the universe contains some particles (atoms, protons, photons, etc.), which may interact with the gravity field and radiation to some extent.
The celestial spheres, i.e. material, create holes in the gravity field. The pressure of gravitation compresses the material and forces the atomic particles to slow down, which will also slow down “time”. The pressure of gravitation, high temperature and nuclear reactions transform the material into energy in the sun. A black hole, gravity and low temperature will transform this energy back into material, which may be released with other forms of energy in black hole collisions. There is a huge amount of dark material in space that is difficult to see because it does not emit light or other waveforms of energy, but it may be observed indirectly.
Gravity Fills Space
Gravity fills space and only material makes it visible; material is not the source of gravity. Gravitation is not an inter-material pulling force; rather it is a propulsive force of space that pushes material together. It is difficult to imagine the gravity force, which would arise from each individual atom and would extend to the opposite side of the universe. The all-round gravity ocean feels much more logical explanation for the force which affects within huge distances. Any size of material particles speeds up at exactly the same rate within this gravity flow. The mass of material increases with speed because the material interacts with the gravity field.
The old Newtonian laws of gravity work nicely in local conditions because they are blind to the direction of the gravity field. We may also remember that an electric current flows in the opposite direction to what was originally assumed, but the basic equations still work. However, on a large scale, Newton and Einstein formulas do not agree with experimental observations. For example, the observed expansion speed of the universe is much larger than the calculated one. This error is so huge that some 70% of fictional “dark energy” is needed to compensate this apparent error. An-other disagreement may be found between the calculated and observed Doppler shifts of Pioneer 10 and 11 radio signals.
It is the pressure of the gravitation field that expands the universe, not some mystic dark energy. Gravitation turns into heat and other energy forms when it hits matter, and this creates the 3 Kelvin cosmic background radiation glow, heats celestial spheres and has many other effects. Without this extra energy source the black body radiation would cool down the cosmic background radiation in a “few” years down to 0 Kelvin. The gravity field may also be one reason why a lot of energy is needed to reach the absolute zero temperature in the laboratory. Different forms of gravity energy may even be the primary fuel of the universe, which feeds energy to the celestial systems.
The heat effect of the gravity field is difficult to measure with a calorimeter because this effect is smaller than the accuracy of a standard calorimeter and because we cannot insert the whole earth into a calorimeter. However, on a large scale the heat effect of the gravity field and nuclear reactions are palpable. This heat effect becomes evident some kilometers under our feet and also inside the other celestial spheres, making their core hot. Energy and material never disappear, they are only transformed; this is a basic fact that we can rely upon.
Center of the Universe
According to the latest observations the universe looks like the foam on beer. The visible galaxies and material are located on the surfaces and edges of the individual bubbles of this cellular foam. Everything is rotating in orbits in our universe, so it is very probable that the whole universe is also rotating around some huge black holes, which may look like a huge dark galaxy. In other words, all galaxies are rotating around the same massive gravity wells, which may be the primary source and destination point of the gravity flow.
If the gravity flow has destination points then it should also have source points. The secondary source points may be located in the middle of the cellular foam bubbles of space. From this location the gravity wind blows matter onto the bubble surfaces. Usually all the energy and matter circulate in the universe, therefore the primary source of gravity could be located near the center of the universe; and huge black holes may transmit gravity energy back to the universe using some method and form still unknown to us.
If these logical assumptions are correct, then the center of our universe may be found from the midpoint of the orbital movement of all the galaxies. This orbital movement of the galaxies is difficult to verify because long time observations are needed due to the huge distances, but even now it seems that the galaxies move like a string of pearls within the universe. The midpoints of our solar system and the Milky Way are much easier and faster to find by observing the orbital movement of planets and suns.
Fluid Dynamic Model of the Universe
The gravity-space approach will give a much more realistic and comprehensive understanding of the real universe than the old fictive time-space approach. Even the new string theory has not been able to explain the construction of the universe in spite of huge investments in this theory. A gravity-space standpoint could make it possible to model the movement of tiny celestial spheres in the vast gravity ocean using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software with small modifications.
The earth and moon may be used to verify the necessary basic parameters for the fluid dynamic model of the universe. The gravity flows with high speed towards the spheres, which move slowly in this gravity energy ocean without friction. The volume ratio between space and matter is huge; the universe is like a sparse particle suspension.
The observed expansion of the universe has been decoded to support the Big Bang assumption, but who knows when expansion started and when it will end? The Microsoft share price may increase this year but this does not prove that it will also increase next year. On the other hand, the complicated mathematical model of the universe is not valid evidence of the Big Bang if some fictive parameters are needed to agree with experimental observations. Actually anything could be fitted using complicated models with tens of parameters and variables. These kinds of mathematical models tend to give correct answers just because these answers are given to the model in the parameter fitting stage. Of course these complicated models may be useful to silence the skeptics, but they are not valid evidence if they do not agree with experimental observations without fictive parameters.
We still know less than 1% of the physical and chemical truth, so it is not wise to anchor our old assumptions if they do not agree with experimental observations. We should keep an open mind in order to go forward in our never-ending exploration. All inventions are based on new ideas and dreams, and they are the main driving force behind science, research and development. It is impossible to invent new ideas if we fear to test the old assumptions and make mistakes. An easy solution is to add new parameters to repair the old models but sometimes the reassessment of the old assumptions may give better results; at least we should have the courage to test some other assumptions than the traditional ones.
We cannot make the clock run in reverse or turn an old tomato into a fresh one, because it is impossible to change the direction of physical and chemical reactions, which contain random factors. We do not need to worry about the disturbance of cause and effect because the present time is and was the only existing time. Juice may quickly be changed into wine by changing the speed of the natural processes, but we can travel in time only in our minds, because time is an illusion but gravity is the real thing.
However, time is flying because our world is changing all the time; change is the cause and time is the effect. Continuous change is a great thing because the human mind prefers insecurity to boredom. Time flies faster at the point that is moving slower, according to the Theory of Relativity. It is funny that time also flies faster in the human mind as the number of years increases and our physical speed decreases.
Antti Roine, May 15, 2005
Aristotle may have been one of the first to assume that time is made from movement.
Professor Petr Beckmann proposed replacing the word "Aether" with "Gravity", but he did not believe that "Gravity fills space".
- Beckmann, P. 1987. Einstein Plus Two, Golem Press, Boulder, CO.
Bryan G. Wallace found that the speed of light might not be exactly constant. However, he did not mention that speed might depend on the gravitation field.
- Wallace, B.G. 1969. "Radar Testing of the Relative Velocity of Light in Space," Spectroscopic Letters, 2, 361.
- Wallace, B.G. 1983. Letter to the Editor, Physics Today, 36, 1.
The calculated Doppler shifts of Pioneer 10 and 11 radio signals do not agree with the experimentally observed Doppler shifts. Pioneer 10/11 speeds seem to decrease too much.
- Renshaw, C. 1999. "Explanation of the Anomalous Doppler Observations in Pioneer 10 and 11," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., 2, 59-63.
Ronald R. Hatch has found disagreements between experimental observations and Einstein theories.
- Hatch, R.R. 1992. Escape from Einstein, Kneat Company, Wilmington, CA.
Häfele-Keating experiment does not measure time dilation; instead they measure the rate of the processes.
- Häfele, J.C. and Keating, R.E. 1972. "Around-the-world Atomic Clock: Measured Relativistic Time Gains," Science, 177, 168-170.
Some nice draft maps of the universe and the Milky Way:
Marcus Chow: Catching the cosmic wind, Maurizio Consoli
PS. I would be glad to get your feedback and comments how to improve this column.