email@example.com/">richard firstname.lastname@example.org - April 12, 1999 - 15:02 UTC
1. Origin of the universe- the original string theory?
String Theory and Superstring Theory, where particles are treated as filaments or membranes rather than points, is the most promising physics for understanding the origin and creation of our universe. The physics comes in two varieties: supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric. The more elementary is the original, non-supersymmetric, 26-D (dimensional) String Theory developed in the 1970s. String Theory has two models, the closed string for bosons or forces and the open string for fermions or matter. However both non-supersymmetric models are considered inadequate. The open string incorporates matter but not gravity. Closed strings cannot incorporate matter, but gravity is intrinsic to first-order vibrations of closed strings. In addition, the ground-state of closed strings is a seemingly undesirable particle, the "tachyon", having imaginary mass and velocity faster than the speed of light. And both models require many dimensions(26) in comparison to our 4-D space-time. Supersymmetry eliminates the tachyons and predicts ordinary matter and massless bosonic ground-states in far fewer dimensions(9, 10 or 11), but at the price of introducing extraordinary, invisible, supersymmetric matter.
By introducing the concept of supersymmetry where boson (e.g., photon, etc.) anomalies are canceled by supersymmetric fermions (e.g., photinos, etc.), and vice versa, an 11-D supersymmetric ("supergravity") theory was developed first for point-particles in the late 1970s. By the early 1980s a similar ("superstring") theory was also formulated for string-particles in 10 dimensions. In fact by 1990, several conflicting superstring models were formulated in 10-D, and then one in 9-D. More recently Witten, the Einstein of our time, formulated an 11-D theory based on "membranes", a generalization of strings, called M-theory. Witten has shown that all the earlier supersymmetric models including supergravity are special limits of M-theory (see M. Duff, Scientific American, Feb 1998).
Despite considerable progress superstring theory remains incomplete- physicists struggle with the multiple ways that 9, 10 or 11 dimensions can be "compactified" to our low energy 4-D space-time universe in order to predict the present forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetic and nuclear). We thereby justify the use of scripture as a guide.
Scripture purports that the origin of the universe was in a cosmic egg, the size of a "mustard seed", that was full of light with expansive and contractive forces normally in balance except for the act of creation (see for example, Krishna, Sri Bhagavatam). Translated into physics, the cosmic egg was apparently entirely bosonic- a vacuum. Supersymmetry, which necessarily implies the existence of a balance of fermions and bosons, is therefore excluded. The primordial model must be non-supersymmetric. There is only one appropriate model, the original 26-D theory of a closed bosonic strings. Perhaps (negative mass^2) tachyons carry the expansive forces that negate the contractive forces of the massive higher-level vibration states of the strings in the cosmic egg .
2. A 26-dimensional universe?
The central point of the preceding discussion is that if String Theory is correct, and if the origin of the universe is an energetic vacuum (the unified field), then our universe is fundamentally 26-D, rather than 9-D, 10-D or 11-D (as physicists now seem to think).
The fact that the origin of the universe is bosonic allows it to be sub-microscopic, a so-called "Planck Nugget". Fermions require separated states of position and momenta from Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, but bosons can overlap; and we can conceive of putting an entire universe in a 26-D "Planck Nugget" only if many particles are allowed to occupy the same state. In other words, closed string have many windings, but open strings cannot.
Likewise, a sub-microscopic 26-D Planck nugget can expand into a 3-D universe that is immense compared to our visible universe. For example, suppose the diameter of the nugget were 10^-24 cm., or 10^9 p, one Billion p across, where p equals the Planck radius(10^-33cm.). The 26-D volume is then 10^234 in units of p^26. Our 10 Billion light-year visible universe is 10^28 cm. or 10^61 p in extent, and has a volume of 10^183 p^3, more than 10^50 p^3 smaller than the 26-D volume in phase space. A 26-D volume that is 1 Billion p in diameter is equivalent to a 3-D universe that is 10^18 Billion light-years in diameter. For comparison, if the sub-microscopic origin were 10-D, then 1 billion Planck radii could only expand to 10^-3 cm. (Note that when a dimension is compactified, its extent shrinks from one Billion p to one p, transferring its ‘Planck Space’ to the uncompactified dimensions. We assume that time is compactified as well)
On the other hand from Superstring Theory we understand that matter requires 10-D for its creation. It appears then that in the moment of creation, somehow 10 dimensions must have split off from the other 16 in order to create matter as well as the GUT force(the unification of the electromagnetic and the strong and weak nuclear forces). Witten’s demonstration, that within 11-D M-theory one can shrink one dimension into a line that connects two 10-D spaces, (one for visible matter and one for supersymmetric "Dark Matter" Duff suggests, ibid.), could possibly simulate the moment of creation, except for the separation of the16 dimensions that do not contribute to the creation of matter.
Given an equipartition of energy in the original 26 dimensions, then 10/26 of the energy of the universe goes into the creation of matter, both visible and dark matter, and becomes the contractive force of the universe. The remaining 16/26 of the energy remains in the vacuum state and becomes the expansive force of the universe. The vacuum energy of the universe, what physicists call the "cosmological constant" in General Relativity, is represented by the "vacuum omega" whereas the mass of the universe is represented by the "mass omega". The sum of these two omegas equals one in a so-called "flat" universe, the borderline between open and closed universes, as predicted by Inflation Theory. Recent astronomical observations indicate that the mass omega is about 35-40% and the vacuum omega, as measured from acceleration of the expansion of the universe, is 60-65%. Since 10/26=38.5%, we take this as evidence for a 26-D universe.
3. The Cosmic Egg?
We know that the total matter of the universe eventually split into visible and invisible components, with the visible component, i.e., gases, stars and planets, comprising only about 5% of the total mass. The invisible component or Dark Matter is about ten times more massive as inferred from the motion of stars. Its particulate nature, except for neutrinos, has not been detected yet. Dark Matter may consist of the supersymmetric particles like photinos and gravitinos as well as neutrinos, axions and black holes. The energetic space vacuum is a third particle regime of even greater mass-equivalent energy.
Scripture is in agreement on the existence of three regimes, but not on the size of the Cosmic Egg, it being likened to the size of a mustard seed. In section 2 we assumed that the origin of the universe was sub-microscopic in agreement with conventional physics. We will not abandon that assumption, but the specification of a macroscopic cosmic egg must be telling us something. The question is, why does a sub-microscopic 10^-24 cm. Planck Nugget need a 10^21 times larger egg for creation of the universe?
We believe that the answer has already been given in section 2. That is, a 3-D universe must first fully inflate from only 10-D contributions. A 10-D Planck Nugget, a billion Planck radii across, can inflate to a 10^-3 cm. 3-D baby universe within the cosmic egg (Note that 11-D goes to 1 cm.). So at first only six dimensions compactify. The baby universe then detaches from the space of the cosmic egg. The remaining 16 dimensions compactify, and the detached universe inflates and expands to 10^18 Billion light-years.
So where does such an egg exist? We believe that the cosmic egg is actually the central singularity of a black hole. From the M-theory of black holes by Vafa (see Duff, ibid.), we know that mini-black holes are equivalent to a superstring membrane; and so we expect that the central singularities of larger black holes are membranes as well. Since black holes are absorbing space we also expect that space which passes through the (static?) membranes at the nearly the speed of light is completely compactified within the membranes. Thus the cosmic eggshell is a superstring membrane that isolates its interior from the massive forces outside of it. A vacuum and the unified field exists within the membrane. The unified field consists of closed bosonic strings residing in 26-D space with a tachyon ground-state that exerts an expansive force on the membrane.
According to Vafa(see Greene, The Elegant Universe, Norton Press) the encounter of two closed strings with opposite winding, a string and an anti-string, results in a relatively motionless single open string; and that the chance encounter of three pairs at the same point, but in orthogonal directions, may initiate creation of a new 3-D universe. Open strings carry matter particles at their ends, so we expect that this event involves the 10-D supersymmetry required for matter creation. In fact, the open string might be equivalent to the line connecting the two 10-D spaces in Witten’s M-theory as mentioned in section 2. These are the seeds of a black hole creation theory.
4. Black Hole- Womb of the Universe?
The essence of this cosmology is that superstring membranes at the centers of black holes isolate spherical regions of primordial unified field in which (i) new universes may be created (and launched if the region is macroscopic in size), and even more extraordinary, (ii) space itself is created. An assumption inherent in the above analysis is that space is built up from 26-D Planck Spheres, so that a submicroscopic (10^-24 cm. wide) Planck Nugget in 26-D space can expand to a universe that is 10^18 Billion light years wide (from the compactification of 23 of the dimensions from one Billion Planck radii to one Planck radii). However, a spherical membrane 0.1 cm. wide has room for about 10^70 such Planck Nuggets. For this cosmology to be true, the super membrane must multiply the number of 26-D Planck Spheres by at least a factor of 10^70.
Astronomical observations suggest that most all galaxies contain black holes of varying size and mass. Superstring physics suggests that each black hole contains a central superstring membrane that isolates an interior region of primordial unified field. Scripture suggests that the membrane must grow to a macroscopic size before it can give birth to a detachable baby universe. We suggest that a 3-D supersymmetric universe must first grow to maturity from 10-D (perhaps 11-D?) contributions inside the membrane before it can detach into a separate space-time for continued 3-D expansion as the remaining 16 (15?) dimensions compactify. Once a baby universe detaches, the membrane remains inside its black hole, awaiting the next chance encounter of strings and anti-strings. Thus black holes of sufficient mass may generate a sequence universes.
This cosmology is of course largely hypothetical. However, it is the connecting link between the hypothesis of Smulin, ‘that our universe in the evolution of universes is selected to create as many black holes as possible’, and the standard model of Big-Bang Cosmology which suggests that there exists only one universe that is finite in size and time. Big Bang Cosmology is consistent with western scripture, whereas eastern scripture claims multiple births of universes. Maybe physics will guide theology once again.
The Chaotic Inflationary Cosmology of Linde also predicts an exponentiating sequence of universal births, but without the requirement of black holes. The advantage of a black hole cosmology is that it is amenable to more detailed study. For example, studies are underway to determine if our universe is optimized for black hole creation. We know that black holes cannot exist in one or two dimensions for lack of mass concentration. Black holes and entire universes can exist and be stable in three dimensions. But in higher dimensional space, the mass is so concentrated that entire universes rapidly collapse to black holes which radiate and disappear. So 3-D universes are optimized for stable black hole production.
Likewise, superstring analysis of large black holes is or will soon be possible. For example, the central super membrane size will be calculated as a function of black hole mass from M-theory and the consequences of ‘tachyon physics in 26-D’ will be explored. Tachyons may after all serve a purpose, the growth of space in the unified field..