Stafford Theory is a data sampling theory roughly similar to Fisher Sampling Theory. Fisher gave us the fundamental way to predict the behavior of a whole from a small sample of it. Stafford treats data as known and unknown, essentially the same thing.
In the literature (1) Fishers Theory has been combined with Classical Mechanics to derive Schroedingers equation which underlies the quantum mechanics of wave functions. So (1) demonstrates that the physical universe is using sampling theory, a branch of information theory, to predict the laws of quantum mechanics. Apparently information is transmitted via sampling theory.
Stafford carries thinking forward by deriving a new theory, based on sampling both known and the unkown data, in which he finds constraints on the unknown data. These constraints can be cast in the guise of differential equations- in fact, a single fundamental differential equation. The details of the constraints may be found on Stafford's (link?)
Stafford then applies the foundation equation to various scenarios which result in both the the Schroedinger Equation of quantum mechanics and the equations of Relativity, or for that matter Classical Mechanics, depending on the scenario chosen.
It appears that the universe operates using Stafford Sampling Theory, the mathematics of sampling theory in which data is either known or unknown. In that case the constraints on unknown data as derived will work for known data as well. Anyway that is the fundamental assumption behind the paper.
The assumption is that the universe is binary, black and white. Either we know something or we do not. Nothing gray in between like in ordinary life. At its most fundamental level, the universe is a 1 or a 0, known or unknown, with nothing in between. So Stafford has found the information sampling theory of the most fundamental data possible; and found that it controls physical processes at the nuclear level.