Author: Mr. Abhijit B Patil.
Postal Address:Mr. Abhijit B Patil, C/o Life Insurance Corporation of India, At/Po/Tq: Shahada City, Dist: Nandurbar, Maharastra State, INDIA. Pin: 425 409. Tel No. +91-2565-23794, 23647, 23818, 23338. Email Address: email@example.com
Paper 1: Ultra Propulsion Technology
This paper propose model to accumulate potential energy (PE) to shield gravity and to give desired speed to body.
We have conventional limited resources to propel a body. Present technology does not allow us to reach stars and galaxies to explore and understand our universe. This paper propose model to acuumulate potential energy (PE) which can be used to shield gravity and give kinetic energy ( KE ) to a body to enable it to reach stars and galaxies. This paper is divided in three parts. Concepts given in three parts are interdependnt. Hence reader must concentrate on all the three parts.
PART I: Basics of Ultra Propulsion physics
(1) If we take a look at falling leaf of tree, we will note that the leaf does not come down straight with acceleration 9.78 m/s^2. It rotates in air at the time of falling and takes rather longer time. Is it only because of resistence from air? Have ever sceintists tested speed of falling leaf of tree in vacuum?
(2) If we take small flywheel (toy top) and keep on ground on its axle, the flywheel tilt and touches ground. But if we rotate it on ground, it rotates for some time, gradually loses its KE, tilts, touches ground while still rotating and finally stops rotating. We will note that greater the KE of flywheel, it takes longer time before touching ground. Why the rotating flywheel resists gravity of planet?
(3) If we take gyroscope and leave the spinning blades in mid-air, it does not come straight down on planet. It rotates while coming down taking longer time than falling stone. If KE of spinning blades is greater, it takes longer time. Why the spinning blades does not come down on ground like stone? If it is because of aerodynamic effect, has ever sceintists done such experiment in vacuum?
(4) Let us install ceiling fan in open air and switch on at say, 5 meter height. Blades of fan will push the air in downward direction. If linear speed blades of fan is high, certainly the speed with which the blades of fan pushes air in downward direction will be much more than 9.78 m/s^2 which is the acceleration due to gravity. But in this example, we notice that when the blades of fan pushes the air in downward direction with speed, say, 100 m/s; vacuum is created above the blades of fan. Amazingly, air above the blades of fan replaces the vacuum immediately.
That means air above the blades of fan "falls" in the vacuum with same speed with which blades pushes the air in downward direction. In this case 100 m/s. Why should air above the blades of fan break the laws of gravity and immediately "fall" with the same speed at which blades of fan pushes the air? The air "falls" on the blades of fan with speed much more than 9.78 m/s^2! Why should this happen?
Same happens when we install fan in wind tunnel. Why should molecules in air which are in random direction streamline its direction towards blades of fan with velocity with which blades of fan throws the air?
(5) Same case applies to water pump. If we pump the water from tank in downward direction, when blades of pump pushes water, vacuum is cretaed. Amazingly water in pipe replace the vacuum immediately with same speed with which blades throw the water which can be much more than gravity allows. Why should water "fall" in vacuum created by blades of pump with speed greater than gravity allows?
(6) Why does wheels of high speed vehicles tend to leave ground?
History of Anti-Gravity Related Experiments Involving Gyroscopes:
Whatever Author has given above in observations is not new thing. Almost all the physicists have noted this phenomenon. And assuming that rotating body can shield gravity, many experiments have been conucted worldwide during last decade. The first major one, which created reipples in scientific world is given below.
A paper entitled "Anomalous Weight Reduction on a Gyroscope's Right Rotations about the Vertical Axis on the Earth" appeared in the December 18, 1989 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. It is the work of two Japanese physicists, Hideo Hayasaka and Sakae Takeuchi of the Department of Radiation Engineering, Tohoku University, in Sendai, Japan. The paper presented detailed evidence that three different motor-driven gyroscope rotors made of brass, aluminum, and silicon-steel each showed a weight loss of up to 12 milligrams (weight) or a few parts in 100,000 in overall weight when the gyro was spun clockwise (as viewed from above) at between 3 and 13 thousand RPM. The gyro showed no weight-loss effect when spun counter-clockwise. The clockwise-spin data showed that the weight loss of the gyro depends linearly on the rotation rate of the gyro. The weight loss data is very regular. In fact, it is too regular for strict consistency with the error bars of the experimental data points. The Hayasaka-Takeuchi paper was careful to emphasize that no known physical effect, including general relativity, can account for an effect of this size and rotational dependence.
But later experiments to test the same phenomenon did not succeed. Almost no weight change was observed during experiments conducted worldwide.
The Author would like to explain why experiments conducted worlwide have contradicted our observations in daily life in natural world. The Author would like to reproduce two points regarding Newton's theory of centre of mass and linear velocity of body in uniform circular motion
Point (1): Centre of Mass of Body
While using the Newton's laws of motion to study the translational motion of a body, we treat the body as a point mass and consider its motion under the action of an applied force. Any real body, however small it may be, is made up of a number of particles and possesses a finite size. The question now arises:, "at which point of the body should the force be applied so as to produce only translational motion of the body?" Careful observation of any moving body reveals that there is a point inside body whose motion is exactly according to Newton's laws. Such a point is called the "centre of mass" of the body. The body performs only translational motion, if the line of action of applied force passes through its centre of mass. The concept of centre of mass can be understood from the following example.
A circular coin set rolling on a smooth horizontal surface performs translational as well as rotational motion. As there is no unbalanced force acting on the coin, it should have uniform motion along a straight line, in accordance with Newton's laws. If we observe the motion carefully, we find that though different points of the coin have both rotational and translational motions, there is one particular point (i.e. centre of coin) which moves along straight line without any rotation. This point is centre of mass of the coin.
So centre of mass of a body is defined as the point at which the whole mass of the body can be supposed to be concentrated in order to study the motion of body due to an external force, in accordance with Newton's laws of motion.
The concept of the centre of mass simplifies the consideration of motion of a body when an external force is applied to it. According to this concept, we can assume that
(1) the body is replaced by a single particle whose mass is equal to total mass of body.
(2) the particle is situated at the centre of mass of the body and
(3) the external force is applied to this particle.The motion of the particle represents the translational motion of the body.
Point (2) Linear Velocity of Body In Uniform Circular Motion
Uniform circular motion is defined as the motion of a particle along the circumference of a circle with "constant linear speed". In uniform circular motion, the direction of linear velocity changes continuously but its magnitude (i.e. linear speed) remains constant. And the relation between linear velocity and angular velocity is given by,
Linear Velocity ( v ) = Radius ( r ) * Angular Velocity (w, omega)
Now Author would like to explain where the mistake is done while conducting experiments to record weight decrease of gyroscope.
(1) As stated in point 1, first most important thing is to note that in every experiment solid circular disc, gyro top is used. Whatever may be size and mass of these gyro top, rotors be, according to Newtons laws of motion, its whole mass is concentrated at the centre of disc, gyro top etc. That means the centre of mass of these gyro is at centre and according to Newton's laws of motion, a particle at centre point represents whole mass of body and when we rotate the gyro, external force is applied to this particle at centre.
(2) As stated in point 2, now when the gyro rotates, obviously linear velocity of all the particles along radius is not same. It decreases as we move along radius towards centre of gyro. As linear velocity = radius*angular velocity, as radius decreases, linear velocity of particles along radius decreases. And when the radius of this circular gyro tends to be zero, the linear velocity of microscopic particle at the centre point which represents whole mass of body and is centre of mass, tends to be zero.
So however fast we rotate the gyro, linear velocity of microscopic particle will always tends to zero and gravity will act on this centre point of mass i.e. microscopic particle which represent whole mass of body. Whatever may be peripheral velocity of gyro, it does not make difference to gravity because linear velocity of microscopic particle which represents whole mass of body is always tends to be zero. Of course, the particles on outer side of gyro has greater linear velocity and hence greater KE which is enough to counter gravitational force of planet.
This is the reason why gyroscopes tends to resists gravity and still do not show any decrease in weight. This is what experimental data has shown worldwide.
But make no mistake. Gyros still resist gravity. Why experiments worldwide did not show decrease in weight because experiments are done only with solid discs, gyros which has centre point of mass where all the mass of gyros is concentrated.
Reader may confirm that never "uniform hollow circular ring in vacuum" i.e. like Author has proposed below in ring design is never used to perform experiments. Reader may give keywords like " Anti-Gravity experiment uniform hollow circular ring vacuum" to search engines to confirm Author's claim.
In short, we must not use solid disc, gyros. Instead of it, we must use uniform hollow circular RING which does not have centre point of mass so that all the mass of body is not concentrated in single particle at centre point.
Prototype of Ultra Propulsion Technology:
Basic principle of design of ring in this prototype is that there must be vacuum, space, hollow, nothing at the centre of ring after we detach it from motor.
Consider uniform circular ring of three mouse tracking balls connected to each other. I am giving mouse tracking balls for example only. Actually we can use any small solid balls made of any material. There can be minimum three mouse balls in this ring touching each other (This structure of ring resembles structure of elementary particle of our universe according to Authors Theory of DSL). Thin round circular metal ring is passing through centre points of these mouse balls. Author is proposing design of ring containing mouse balls because KE of every ball in this ring will be uniform and if every mouse ball is set free, it will travel in tangential direction along straight line in space.
These mouse balls must travel along tangential straight line direction if set free so that only horizontal straight line component of KE is associated with it. This ring can be placed on three thin spokes connected to axle of electric motor so that every spoke is in between two mouse balls. When we start the motor, these three thin spokes can push the mouse balls so that the ring rotate. Mass of these three thin spokes is minimum possible compared to mass of entire ring containing mouse balls. When our job is done, we can lower the axle of motor or entire motor so that these three thin spokes are seperated from ring. This can be done in evacuated syringe( which doctors use) like rather bigger glass chamber structure. We can attach small electric motor to the piston of this syringe glass chamber so that we can lower the electric motor by pulling down piston of this syringe. Reader must understand design of ring before going further.
Most important thing is that every mouse ball on ring must have almost same KE so that if it travles in tangential direction, the direction must be along STRAIGHT LINE. Because, as you know, if the entire blade of ceiling fan in our home is broken while rotating, it will not travel in space along staright line because different particle on blade do have different linear velocity. This blade of ceiling fan will travel in rather unpredictable way in space.
Mathematical Model of Anti-Gravity:
G = Gravitational constant,
M = Mass of planet,
m = Mass of particle,
R = Radius of planet,
v = Velocity of particle,
As Newton explained beyond doubt through equations, kinetic energy(KE) of particle to escape from gravitational field of planet must be equal to gravitational potential energy of planet(U)
KE = (1/2)m*v^2 and U = GMm/R
As KE = U hence (1/2) m*v^2 = GMm/R
so v^2 = 2*G*M / R i.e. v = (2GM/R)^(1/2)
Now we must note here that we are dealing here with only KE of particle.
If we rotate this ring horizontally in perfect vacuum with linear velocity v = (2GM/R)^(1/2), this ring will never fall on planet. It will keep rotating in vacuum forever. Because though the every mouse ball of ring is rotating in definite space, still every mouse ball in ring has linear velocity v and hence every mouse ball has KE to counter gravitational potential energy(U) of planet. The ring will keep rotating in space where it is and gravity of planet will not act on ring. So planet will move in space but the ring will not.
Orbital(critical) velocity of particle revolving around planet is given by v = (GM/R)^(1/2) So here also, as the particle has velocity v, we are dealing with KE of particle. Hence if we rotate the ring in vacuum with velocity v = (GM/R)^(1/2), it will keep rotating and never fall on planet, but still as the every mouse ball in ring is under gravitational field of planet, ring will rotate with planet and at the same time move in space with planet. So the observer on planet will see the ring rotating horizontally at fixed position above the surface of planet forever. This ring will never fall on planet.
But to rotate a ring with escape velocity or orbital velocity is impractical and hazardous. So according to Author's Theory of Density Space Lines (DSL), we have another way to shield gravity.
Energy Conservation In Vacuum:
After going through observation section given above in this paper, we should come to the conclusion that "kinetic energy" of blades gives rise to potential energy (PE) around blades. And this PE gives rise to KE of air / water and speed of fall of air / water in "vacuum" created by blades of fan is directly proportional to this potential energy.
Same is the phenomenon associated with rotating leaf of tree, flywheel, rotating wheel of vehicles or spinning projectile. KE of rotating flywheel or spinning blades gives rise to PE around flywheel and blade which shield gravity to some extent.
Reader should go back to example of ceiling fan in observation part given above in this paper. Now what will happen, if we keep this fan or flywheel rotating in vacuum? Where the kinetic energy of blades of fan, flywheel will go? It must convert in some form according to law of conservation of energy.
According law of conservation of energy, this KE must accumulate in the form of potential energy around blades of fan, flywheel. Of course some KE of rotor is converted in heat energy due to friction. But not all of the KE. For example if we suspend electric bell in vacuum, where KE of striking hammer to bell goes? If there is air, it is converted in sound energy. But if there is vacuum, where this KE of striking hammer will go? Likewise if an astronauts doing spacewalk in space, swing a rope like wave, where the KE of this rope will go? Will all this KE of rope will convert in heat energy? Does all the KE of rotating wheel, gears in any machine is converted in heat energy? No way. If we observe our nature closely, we will find that always KE of matter gets converted in PE and vice versa. Due to limitation of length of this paper, Author can not propose his Theory of Density Space Lines (DSL) which explain cause of Big Bang and motion of all the bodies in our universe in very easy and simple way through experiments and examples.
Now Newtons first law of motion states that "every inanimate body continues to be in its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line, unless it is acted upon by an external unbalanced force". As the body is in motion, it has KE. And as the body always move along straight line, KE is vector quantity. And as cause of KE of body is always potential energy in some form, PE is also vector quanity. For example, a stone of mass m at height h has PE = mgh. And as this PE is due to gravitational field of planet, this PE has downward direction. So PE is also vector quantity.
Model To Accumulate Potential Energy (PE):
Now let us rotate this ring (design of which is proposed above) in syringe glass chamber horizontally in perfect vacuum with uniform linear velocity, however small it is, using small electric motor. The KE of every mouse ball in the ring will get accumulated in the form of horizontal PE around every mouse ball because uniform centripetal force is acting on every mouse ball of ring all the time. When the magnitude of this horizontal PE is equal to downward gravitational potential energy, the ring will just float in space and will not fall on planet but it will rotate with planet and at the same time move with planet in space. But if this magnitude of horizontal PE is greater than downward gravitational PE, gravity of planet will not act on ring and hence ring will just float where it is in space and planet will move in space.
To associate escape PE with ring on earth, we should rotate the ring in vacuum so that every particle in ring covers 11200 meter distance. For example, if radius of ring is one centimeter, its circumference is 6.28 cm. So we should give the ring 178344 revolutions. Linear velocity of ring does not matter in this case because however small linear velocity and hence KE of ring may be, it must convert in PE and as this PE has no way to go anywhere it will get accumulated . So time does not matter. If the ring is revolving with one revolution per second, let it take 49.54 hours. To associate criticle PE with ring on earth, we should rotate the ring so that is covers around 8000 meter distance (which of course depend upon height of ring from surface of earth)
We must take care while separating this ring from the spokes and axle of motor. We should lower the motor by pulling down piston while rotor of motor is still rotating. As linear velocity of rotating mouse ball ring and hence that of rotor of motor is very small, we can do this easily. We should see ring with just vacuum at the centre of ring. And always to be remembered, this all is to be done in perfect vacuum. Air must not enter in syringe glass chamber. We can use air conditioning outside to cool down syringe glass chamber as there will always be some heat generated due to friction of axle.
Reader can confirm that my concept of accumulation of PE works if he perform experiments given in PART II and then apply those experimental results in PART III
PART II: Absolute Motion Analysis:
We know that speed of light is absolute i.e. it does not depend upon speed of its source. This part II intends to explain cause of absolute motion of any body in general
Suppose that a person in the train moving with velocity v throws a metal piece in the direction of train with velocity v, then as we know, velocity of metal piece with relative to observer on station
will be v + v = 2v and if thrown in opposite direction of train with same velocity, velocity of metal piece with relative to observer on station will be v -v = 0. Clearly, velocity of metal piece is not
absolute in this case. It depends upon speed of source i.e. train. But there is one situation in which velocity of metal piece must be absolute i.e. it must not depend upon speed of its source.
Consider rescue helicopter. Ends of blades of helicopter are rotating with linear velocity "v". This helicopter is stationary in air. Consider that small piece of metal in the ends of blade is broken and
separated from blade. We know that this piece of metal will travel in tangential direction with velocity "v" with relative to observer on helipad or pilot of helicopter. Now consider that this helicopter is flying with speed "v". Remember that blades are rotating with linear velocity "v". Now in this situation if the piece of metal in the ends of blade is broken then it must travel with velocity v, be it with relative to observer on helipad or pilot of helicopter. Speed of source i.e. helicopter must not have any effect on velocity of metal piece. Why? This can be explained as follow.
If we say that speed of helicopter will affect velocity of metal piece as in case of train, then it means that if metal piece is travelling in the direction of motion of helicopter, velocity of metal piece will be v + v = 2v. And in the direction opposite to motion of helicopter, velocity of metal piece will be v -v = 0. This is unthinkable because as the metal piece was part of end of blade, it means that velocity of blade itself in the direction opposite to that of helicopter is zero . It means that range of linear velocity of blades is from 2v to 0. This situation will destabilize blades and eventually break apart. To begin with, blades will not rotate at all. But as we know, this does not happen.
Velocity of blades of helicopter is independent of speed of helicopter itself. Hence it will have no effect on the velocity of metal piece when it travels in space. Whether the helicopter is moving or not, if the blades are rotating with constant linear velocity v, linear velocity of metal piece will always be v. In other words, velocity of metal piece in this case is absolute. Speed of it's source i.e.
helicopter, does not affect its velocity.
I request reader to take ride on bicycle on rainy streets. Let velocity of bike + you be v. Suppose that if you throw small stone with velocity v in the direction of motion of bike, then velocity of stone with relative to you will be v but with relative to pedestrian, it will be v + v = 2v. If you throw stone with same velocity opposite to direction of motion of bike, with relative to you will be v, but with relative to pedestrian, it will be v - v = 0.
Now look at the front wheel of bike. Linear velocity of tyre of wheel is v (because that is why bike is moving with velocity v). As you are on rainy street, some mud will stick to tyre of wheel of bike and as tyre is rotating, mud is also roating with tyre.
Now when this mud is thrown in tangential direction, what will be its velocity with relative to you? If you say that velocity of bike will add to velocity of mud, then velocity of mud in the direction of bike with relative to pedestrian should be v + v = 2v and with relative to you, it should be v. That means, mud should escape from tyre of front wheel and travel before your eyes with velocity v. Are you seeing mud escaping and flying before your eyes (in the direction of bike) with velocity v?
In this case, velocity of mud rotating with tyre is "Absolute". It does not depend upon its source i.e. velocity of bike. Velocity of bike does not add to linear velocity of mud. Hence mud and bike has same velocity. So we can never see mud flying before our eyes. I request reader to verify this.
We can also test this concept by sticking or tying porous ball containing powder or sand to outer side tyre of car, truck etc. Person in car or observer on ground will never see powder, sand being thrown in the direction of car, truck.
Reader can verify my concept of absolute motion by simple experiment. Take a small electric motor running on battery so that it is handy. Attach a disc, blades to axle. Stick or tie porous ball containing powder or sand to disc or blade. Now take this instrument on bike, in car, train, helicopter etc. Start the motor, so that disc or blades rotate. As the ball is porous, powder or sand will be thrown.
While performing this experiment, you may close down all windows of car to avoid air currents. The position of disc should be such that top portion of disc, your eye, vertical side of window should be along straight line perpendiculer to motion of car. Let speed of car be 50 m/s and linear velocity of rotating porous ball be 10 m/s. Now, as you are inside car, speed of vertical side of window of car with relative to you is zero. Your focus should be on TOP side of rotating disc. According to established knowledge of physics, velocity of powder should be 50 + 10 = 60 m/s in the direction of motion of car with realtive to observer on street. Hence you, inside car, should see the powder, sand being thrown in direction of motion of car with velocity 10 m/s.
Are you seeing the powder, sand thrown in the direction of motion of car from TOP portion of disc or blades? You will never see powder being thrown in the direction of car. And we will note that even if speed of car (or any vehicle) is varying, it does not affect the speed of powder or sand thrown in tangential direction if porous ball is rotating with uniform circular motion.
Any body in uniform circular motion do have absolute velocity. Motion of centre point of its centripetal force i.e. motion of its source does not affect velocity of body in circular motion. In uniform circular motion, body do have constant linear velocity but still it is accelerating because its direction is constantly changing. Only force acting upon body is centripetal force directed along radius towards centre of circle. No other force can communicate with rotating body in uniform circular motion.
PART III: Test of Ultra Propulsion Technology And Absolute Motion:
Now consider a TWO tracking mouse balls in our computer mouse connected to each other by very thin spoke. Mass of this thin spoke is very small compared to mass of balls. These mouse balls are rotating in uniform circular motion around centre point of spoke in space with linear velocity one meter per second. And the direction of spin of this mouse ball-spoke system is perpendicular to that of gravitational field of earth. But at the same time, this entire mouse ball-spoke system is rotating around earth in space with velocity 8000 meter per second which is orbital velocity of satellite.
If we disconnect these mouse balls from spoke, then as any body in uniform circular motion do have absolute velocity (which we verified in PART II), these mouse balls will move in space in the direction and opposite the direction of motion of mouse ball-spoke system with linear velocity of just one meter per second i.e.1 m/s. NOT 8000 m/s.
Then now question arise, when the mouse ball-spoke system was moving in space with velocity 8000 m/s and if the mass of mouse ball-spoke system is m, then it had kinetic energy (1/2)*m*v^2 where v = 8000 m/s. But when these two mouse balls are set free from spoke, they are moving in tangential direction in space in opposite direction to each other with just 1 meter per second and not 8000 m/s. Obviously KE of these freely moving mouse balls along straight line is negligible compared to what it had in mouse ball-spoke system. Question is where this tremendous KE of mouse ball-spoke system is gone?
That is exactly what Author has proposed in PART I. This KE of mouse ball-spoke system is accumulated in the form of PE around these mouse balls. And this PE has direction perpendicular to that of gravity. Hence these mouse balls has potential energy to counter gravity of earth. These mouse balls will rotate around earth with speed just one meter per second but will not "fall" or move towards earth. If the direction of PE around these mouse balls is opposite to that of gravity of earth, the mouse ball will just remain where it is and at the same time rotate with earth. Observer on planet will see the mouse ball above the surface of earth (neglecting atmposphere of earth), say just one meter above surface of earth. And yes, he can handle this mouse ball. He can move the position of mouse ball in space. He can play with the mouse ball. But the mouse ball will not fall on earth.
God Speed Planet Earth.