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Posted by Nicholas on November 19, 2002 20:11:13 UTC

On linear and non-linear relations:

All functions appear linear if viewed on small enough scales. On a graphing program, try graphing y=x^2 and zooming in on x=0.9 to x=1.1 and y=0.9 to y=1.1. It probably appears linear, despite arising from a non-linear function. The Hubble law is the same effect. The universe can be moving at a constant acceleration, but it will appear linear if you don't look out far enough. There is no relation between this and flatland, which is a dimensional analogy in relativity.

On dark matter:

Most current theories assume a collection of massive particles with a low interaction cross section.

"All energy is kinetic energy (mass at velocity), binding force (nuclears), electromagnetic (photon particles), potential against gravity force or
potential against elastic force (not found in nature, except ie: wind in trees, to my knowledge). "

There is also mass energy (from E=mc^2). Energy can be converted between the different types, so there is no problem converting non-mass energy to mass energy. Elastic energy is just a macroscopic effect of electromagnetic forces.

The other questions are either unanswered by physics or too ambiguous to be answered.

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