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Posted by Michael Wright on December 6, 2000 18:09:26 UTC

Questions about fundamental particles-

What I know: Each of the four fundamental forces have an intermediary particle which quantizes them.

What makes sense about it but I’m not sure if it is true: Each intermediary particle is unaffected by the force it carries (i.e. the graviton is not affected by the force due to gravity).

-Photons have been shown to be affected by objects with immense gravity (gravitational lensing).

1. Isn’t there something inherently wrong in stating that a quantum particle (photon) is affected by a relativistic wave (gravitational field/wave)?
2. (I think) Photons come in quanta (discreet bundles of energy). Does this mean that Z and W bosons do and gravitons do?
3. If photons are affected by Fg (The force due to gravity) are gravitons affected by Fem?


An idea to explain a gravitational field through gravitons-

An object with mass creates a gravitational field (It ‘bends’ space-time, as in the rubber-sheet analogy). The field gets weaker (as the square of the distance – GmM/r^2) as one moves farther from the center of gravity.

Consider this: Gravitons are continually exchanged between two masses (thus they ‘feel’ the other mass’ gravity affecting them). As a graviton leaves the center of gravity and heads to the other mass, it loses energy (perhaps with friction against space-time). To accommodate the distance-squared equation, some sort of pressure would probably have to be built up to accelerate the decrease of energy of the graviton. Maybe space-time “bunches up” in front of the graviton (The gravitons move so fast-[instantaneously?] that space-time cannot move around it as quickly).
One analogy could be an object moving underwater (after all, space-time is a medium just like water, and I read somewhere that the sun rotating has cause small drags in space-time around it). The object moving slowly under the water encounters less resistance than the same object moving fast under the water.
The increase in pressure against the graviton would force it to expend energy to maintain the same speed.

So the graviton loses its gravitational energy as it travels through space-time to the other mass.


An idea about ‘punching through’ space-time like a singularity-

My thoughts: Space-time is not being created as the universe expands (That could clash with some conservation law or another and it implies a ‘center’ of the universe – the logical place space-time would be created). Space-time is expanding as the universe expands.

Imagine a rubber sheet, all bunched up into a little ball. Then with one person at each corner spreading it out the rubber sheet would begin to grow more and more taut and easier to puncture.

1. Is it plausible to state that the critical mass for a star to become a black hole (i.e. to ‘punch through’ space-time) decreases over time as space-time expands?
2. Assuming any of this gibberish could be true, would there be a limit to which space-time could be expanded (stretched)?
3. We could possibly have low-mass black holes created then, right?

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